The best Peru Travel express only with Machu Picchu Hiram Bingham
The Peru country is located in South America that’s home to a section of Amazon rainforest and Machu Picchu Peru; an ancient Incan citadel high in the Andes mountains. The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley of the Incas; Inca Trail Trek and the colonial city of Cusco; the Inca city is very rich in archaeological sites and history of the Incas. On Peru’s arid Pacific coast is Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial center and important collections of pre-Columbian art.
Lima; known the city of KINGS.
Officially the Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the North by Ecuador and Colombia; in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia; in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region; in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains; vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures; ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC; the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest and most sophisticated state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies; with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821; and following the military campaigns of José de San Martínand Simón Bolívar; and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years; the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability; which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century; Peru endured armed territorial disputes; coups, social unrest; and internal conflicts; as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development;and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent. It is one of the region’s most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9%; and it has one of the world’s fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%.] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing. The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas; a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America’s Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth; stable macroeconomic foundations; improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom and it has the third lowest homicide rate in South America; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, USAN, the Pacific Alliance and the World Trade Organization;
Peru has a multiethnic population of over 31 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua , Aymara or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art; cuisine; literature, and music.
¿Why The Name of Perú?
The name of the country may be derived from Birú; the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel; Panama, in the early 16th century. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522; they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birúor Perú.
An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega; son of an Inca princess and a conquistador. He said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila; and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.
The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo; which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence.
Prehistoric and Pre – Columbian Period
Peru book facts; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture; using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.
The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization; flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal; and Andean regions throughout Peru.
Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 Bc; along what is now Peru’s Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Inca culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC; was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD; a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell; both on the coast and in the highlands; during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
The Mochica, who reached their apogee in the first millennium AD; were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain; their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru and southern Ecuador; the Chimu flourished from about 1150 to 1450. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo.
In the highlands; both the Tiahuanaco culture; near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia; and the Wari culture; near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 AD.
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